Recent US advances in counterinsurgency doctrine have been adopted by developing country armed forces. Nevertheless, no systematic study has examined the barriers they face to implementing highly involved counterinsurgency strategy. Tracing the evolution of Peruvian doctrine demonstrates that Peru was able to quickly improve the unity of effort, intelligence capacity, and military basing to meet the demands of a population-centric hearts-and-minds approach to counterinsurgency. Nevertheless, the limited tactical initiative and flexibility of Peruvian forces remains a challenge. The Peruvian experience is instructive for other militaries undergoing similar transitions. However, given the diversity of insurgent conflicts, this doctrine is not universally appropriate.
Koven, Barnett S. 2016. "Emulating U.S. Counterinsurgency Doctrine: Barriers for Developing Country Forces, Evidence from Peru." Journal of Strategic Studies (April): 1-21. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01402390.2016.1154462