While progressive social movements have always linked at the transnational level, the forms these transnational linkages take changes in time, and so do the channels of diffusion of ideas across countries. Additionally, economic globalization as well as the proliferation of international organizations are not automatically followed by transnationalization of contentious politics. Rather, resources and opportunities for multilevel campaigns vary, influenced by transformation in global capitalism and its political consequences. Reflecting on recent waves of protests – from the Global Justice Movement to the anti-austerity movements and the ‘hot autumn’ of 2019 – this article aims at singling out changing patterns in the spread of contestation.
della Porta, Donatella. 2020. "Spreading Protests: Changing Paths of Transnationalization of Social Movements." Populism, Power and Protest 31: 116-134. http://www.alternateroutes.ca/index.php/ar/article/view/22511