Peru and Colombia continue to be threatened by virulent insurgent groups having clear ties to narcotrafficking. In Peru, the current threat is from the guerilla group ‘the Shining Path’, whereas in Colombia, the most significant threat is from FARC-EP (the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army). Both groups were originally constituted as leftist – Maoist and Marxist-Leninist, respectively – insurgents. Over time these organizations’ revolutionary ideologies gave way, at least in practice, to ‘narco-capitalism’ (Koven and McClintock forthcoming; Koven 2014).
Koven, Barnett S. 2014. "The Perils of Simultaneous COIN and Counternarcotics in Peru and Colombia." E-International Relations (April). http://www.e-ir.info/2014/04/28/the-perils-of-simultaneous-coin-and-counternarcotics-in-peru-and-colombia/