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Improving Shadow Evacuation Management: Case Study of the Graniteville, South Carolina, Chlorine Spill


Improving Shadow Evacuation Management: Case Study of the Graniteville, South Carolina, Chlorine Spill

Abstract: 
Facilitating evacuations is a primary aim of disaster management. While under-response to evacuation orders is a typical problem, over-response, or a shadow evacuation, also poses serious problems and should be minimized when possible. This case study of a chlorine spill was designed to evaluate the differences in evacuation behavior between those faced with an evacuation order versus spontaneous, voluntary evacuees. We found that a significant shadow evacuation developed, and we believe that the addition of geographic specificity to the warning message may have limited the scope of the over-response.

Publication Information

Full Citation: 

Mitchell, Jerry T., Susan L. Cutter, and Andrew S. Edmonds. 2007. "Improving Shadow Evacuation Management: Case Study of the Graniteville, South Carolina, Chlorine Spill." Journal of Emergency Management 5 (January): 28-34. https://www.wmpllc.org/ojs/index.php/jem/article/view/1511/0

START Author(s): 
Susan Cutter
Publication URL: 
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