Should the U.S. respond with military means to a limited Russian incursion in the Baltics? This paper explores Western attitudes towards such a hypothetical grey zone crisis. Using survey experiments and crisis simulations we find considerable reluctance to use military tools in order to support a Baltic ally, and surprisingly little variation across the audiences. The underlying reluctance to get the U.S. involved in an armed conflict with Russia in the hopes that such acquiescence may help preserve global stability indicates that the conflict in Ukraine only had a fundamentally limited impact on Western strategic thought on deterring Russia.
Murauskaite, Egle E., David Quinn, Catarina P. Thomson, Devin H. Ellis, Jonathan Wilkenfeld, and Erik Gartzke. 2020. "Extended Deterrence Dilemmas in the Grey Zone: Trans-Atlantic Insights on Baltic Security Challenges." Journal on Baltic Security 5 (February). https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jobs.ahead-of-print/jobs-2019-0006/jobs-2019-0006.xml