This chapter examines the post 9/11 legislative and policy changes pertaining to non-citizens in Australia, Canada, and the United States. The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in New York City and Washington DC claimed 3000 lives from all over the world, caused financial damage (some estimates calculated the damage costs as exceeding 50 billion dollars), psychological trauma, and negatively affected the global economy. Unlike other acts of terrorism, many people around the world perceived these assaults as more than an attack against a single country. Most countries condemned the 9/11 attacks, and the leading French newspaper Le Monde even published a front-page headline that proclaimed, "We are all Americans".
Freilich, Joshua D., and Graeme Newman, Matthew Opesso. 2006. "Immigration, security, and civil liberties post 9/11: A comparison of American, Australian and Canadian legislative and policy changes." In Migration, Culture Conflict, Crime and Terrorism, eds. Joshua D. Freilich and Rob T. Guerette. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, 49-70.