As part of a congressionally mandated study, the Applied Technology Council (ATC-61) examined nine communities to supplement its national study that found an aggregate benefit-cost ratio of about four for mitigation grants funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Corroborating this aggregate finding, the examination of these nine communities also cast light on how communities can have successful hazard mitigation programs. For high-risk and persistent hazards, institutionalization is required. This involves regular funding streams, support and management by high ranking officials, buy-in by all community stakeholders, and transfer of authority for programs through multiple generations of champions. Suitable treatment of low or localized hazard is also desirable. In selecting projects to be undertaken, evaluation by planners and engineers provides key quality assurance.
Mittler, Elliott, Linda B. Bourque, Michele M. Wood, and Craig Taylor. 2009. "How Communities Implement Successful Mitigation Programs: Insights from the Multihazard Mitigation Council (MMC) Community Study." In Multihazard Issues in the Central United States: Understanding the Hazards and Reducing the Losses, ed. James E. Beavers. ASCE Council on Disaster Risk Management, 55-71. https://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/9780784410158.ch06