A Department of Homeland Security Emeritus Center of Excellence led by the University of Maryland

Jemaah Islamiya (Ji) Narrative


Jemaah Islamiya (JI)

Last Update

April 2015

Aliases

Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah [1]

History

Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) was founded in 1993 in Malaysia by Abu Bakar Ba’asyir and Abdullah Sungkar.[2] However, some sources claim that the group was created around the late 1970s or early 1980s, but during that time the group was not involved in violent attacks.[3] JI is a militant Islamic organization with the goal of creating an Islamic state ruled under sharia law in Southeast Asia.[4] JI’s ideology is derived from Darul Islam, a radical movement that aimed to establish Islamic law in Indonesia.[5] The group has cells that operate in Australia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei and Thailand.[6] , [7] Some of the most important figures of the group include Abu Bakar Ba’asyir, who is believed to be the group’s spiritual and operational leader, and Nurjaman Riduan Ismuddin (aka Hambali), and Mohamad Iqbal Abdurrahman (aka Abu Jibril).[8]

The group has attacked wide variety of targets, including Western embassies, tourist destinations and churches.[9] Some of their major attacks included a series of bombings in Manila (2000), bombings in two nightclubs in Bali (2002), a car bombing in the Marriott hotel in Jakarta (2003), and a bombing outside the Australian embassy in Jakarta (2004).[10] Some sources indicate that the group may have been significantly weakened by counterterrorism efforts in the region in the mid-2000s, although analysts caution that JI operatives still pose a threat.[11] The group started to splinter in 2003 as the group’s leadership seemed to be moving towards a greater focus on religious outreach in an attempt to build public support for their cause. [12] One such splinter group led by Noordin Mat Top bombed two hotels in Jakarta in 2009.[13]

Home Base

Indonesia

Founding Year

1993.[14]

Ideology

Religious-Islamist-Jihadist[15]

Specific Goals

  • Overthrow the Indonesian government and the establishment of an Islamic regime in Indonesia.[16]
  • Creation of an Islamic state (known as "Daulah Islamiyah Nusantara) across Southeast Asia.[17]
  • Promotion of local, regional and global Jihad.[18]

Political Activity

None

Financing

  • Charities/Donations
    • Much of JI’s funding comes from member donations and affiliated charities.[19]
    • Many foreign donors are located in the Middle East.[20]
  • Other
    • A loosely linked Indonesian consortium of printers, translators, marketers and distributors affiliated with JI helps spread the group’s ideology and also fund its activities.[21]
  • Robbery
    • JI has recruited young men with criminal backgrounds who were willing to “rob infidels” (e.g., banks) as a means of demonstrating their religious fervor.[22]
  • Funded by other violent groups:
    • Al-Qa’ida is reported to have provided significant funding to JI.[23]

Leadership and Structure over Time

  • The group has over the course of its existence comprised of a network of cells operating in different countries throughout South East Asia, including in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, and possibly Cambodia.[24]
  • The organizational structure of Jemaah Islamiya was originally hierarchical in nature and made up of four “Mantiqis” which each had a geographical and functional focus (e.g., fundraising, military training etc.). [25] Though cells always appear to have had a degree of autonomy.[26]
  • The group later fragmented due to internal disagreements about how the group should achieve their goals. [27] Counterterror operations across the region have effectively decapitated the group and there is no clear leader or leadership structure at the present time.
  • Abu Bakar Ba’asyir and Abdullah Sungkar co-founders of the organization in 1993. [28]
  • Between 2002 and 2006 Ba’asyir was arrested, charged, and convicted on charges relating to terrorism and treason. [29]
  • Mohamad Iqbal Abdneurrahman, aka Abu Jibril, was second in command and a group’s primary recruiter until his arrest in 2001.[30]
  • Nurjaman Riduan Ismuddin, aka Hambali, is the operations chief and was involved in the planning of several attacks until his arrested in 2003 in Thailand.[31]
  • 2002-2004: Abu Rusdan (arrested)[32]
  • 2004-2007: Emir Zarkasih (arrested)[33]
  • No leader has been publically appointed since 2007. [34]

Strength

  • 2007: 900 to several thousand members.[35]
  • 2008: more than 500 members.[36]
  • 2013: 500 to several thousand members.[37]

Allies and Suspected Allies

  • Al-Qa’ida[38] (ally)
    • Several key figures in the group are reputed to have had close links with al-Qa’ida, [39] with many of them (uch as Hambali) member of both groups. [40]
    • Many members trained in the same camps in Pakistan and Afghanistan in the 1980s and 1990s.[41]
    • There is evidence that al-Qa’ida funds were provided to JI though various channels. [42]
    • Members of al-Qa’ida also appear to have been involved in assisting in planning attacks and operations. [43] The groups planned joint attacks wherein al-Qa-ida would provide funding and technical assistance, whilst JI provided materials and operatives. [44]
    • Links between Al-Qa'ida and JI appear to have dwindled from 1999-2009.[45]
  • Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) (ally)
    • Members of both groups were trained in the same camps in Afghanistan in the 1980s. [46]
    • Captured leaders of JI have admitted to strong ties with MILF through the training of JI militants in MILF camps.[47]
    • As of 2009, the estimated number of JI cadres working with MILF in plotting insurgent activities was 30 to 40.[48]
    • Provide refuge to JI members. [49]
  • Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) (ally)
    • Provision of refuge for JI fugitives.[50]
    • JI provided training to ASG members.[51]
    • ASG and JI planned joint operations.[52]
  • Rajah Solaiman Movement (RSM) (ally)
    • RSM provides recruits and financing and other logistical support to JI.[53]
    • JI provided RSM with training specifically in handling and preparing explosives. [54]
    • RSM operatives carried out attacks on behalf of JI. [55]
  • Malaysian Kampulan Mujihhedin Malaysia (KMM) (ally) [56]
  • Lashkar-e-Taiba. (ally)
    • Provided training to Pakistani JI cell. [57]
  • Gerakan Mujahideen Islam Pattani (GMIP) (suspected ally)
    • In 2004, Thai security officials claimed that GMIP, suspected in a half dozen attacks in southern Thailand, had ties to both Al Qa'ida and JI.[58]
  • Jamaah Anshurat Tauhid (JAT), Front Pembela Islam (FPI), KOMPAK (Crisis Action Committee), Laskar Jundullah, Majelis Dakwah Umat Indonesia (MDUI), and Majelis Mujahidin Indonesia (MMI) have all reportedly provided recruits and support to JI.[59]

Rivals and Enemies

  • Indonesia (enemy, target)
    • JI's primary goal is the overthrow of Indonesia's secular government and the establishment of sharia law and an Islamic caliphate.[60]
    • Between 2000 and 2011, JI perpetrated more 50 attacks within Indonesia, though a majority targeted churches of a variety of Christian denominations.[61]
  • Philippines (enemy, target)
    • JI seeks to establish an Islamic caliphate throughout Muslim regions of southeast Asia, including in the southern Philippines.[62]
    • In pursuit of this goal, JI collaborates with violent Philippine Islamist groups, including MILF and the Abu Sayyaf Group.[63]
    • Between 2000 and 2013, JI are suspected of numerous attacks on a range of Philippine interests, both within Indonesia (the 2000 bombing of the Philippine ambassador's residence) and the Philippines itself.[64]
  • Thailand (enemy)
    • JI seeks to establish an Islamic caliphate throughout Muslim regions of southeast Asia, including southern Thailand.[65]
    • In 2002, senior JI leadership met in Thailand to plan attacks on “soft targets” (e.g., tourist sites) frequented by Westerners.[66]
  • Australia (enemy, target)
    • A central goal of JI is jihad against Western interests, including Australia.[67]
    • JI seeks to establish an Islamic caliphate throughout Muslim regions of southeast Asia, including northern Australia.[68]
    • JI was blamed for a 2004 bombing of the Australian embassy in Jakarta, which killed 10 and wounded 180 others.[69]
  • Malaysia (enemy)
    • JI seeks to establish an Islamic caliphate throughout Muslim regions of southeast Asia, including Malaysia.[70]
  • Singapore (enemy)
    • JI seeks to establish an Islamic caliphate throughout Muslim regions of southeast Asia, including Singapore.[71]
    • In late 2001, Singapore’s Internal Security Department discovered two JI cells had plotted bombings of American, Australian, British, and Israeli facilities and citizens in Singapore.[72]
  • Brunei (enemy)
    • JI seeks to establish an Islamic caliphate throughout Muslim regions of southeast Asia, including Brunei.[73]
  • United States (enemy, target)
    • A Malaysian JI cell is believed to have met with Al Qa'ida operatives responsible for the September 11, 2001 bombings.[74]
    • JI itself has a history of targeting Westerners, including the October 2002 bombing in Bali, which killed 200 people, mostly Westerners.[75]
    • Since the 2002 bombing, the U.S. military has supported counterterrorism efforts targeting JI.[76]
    • In 2009, suicide bombers attacked two Jakarta hotels, killing nine and wounding 50, including seven U.S. citizens. JI claimed the attacks were "retribution for all the attacks by the United States and its lackeys against Muslims and Muslim holy warriors."[77]
  • The Holy See (target)
    • In January 2015, JI was implicated in a plot to assassinate Pope Francis during his visit to the Philippines.[78]

Counterterrorism Efforts

  • Domestic Law Enforcement:
    • Though reluctant to crack down on the group prior to the 2002 Bali bombings, following that event Indonesia passed new antiterrorism legislation.[79]
    • In 2002, the government ordered the arrest of the group’s alleged leader.[80]
  • International Law Enforcement:
    • Governments of Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore have outlawed the group.[81]
    • After the Bali attacks in 2002, more than 300 members of the group were arrested in the region.[82] 
    • In 2003, the government of Thailand arrested Hambali, one of the leadership figures of the group.[83]
    • The Philippines captured and prosecuted Fathur Rohman al-Ghozhi, a key JI figure and explosives expert.[84]
    • Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines have shared intelligence with the U.S. and have turned over suspects to U.S. custody.[85]
    • The disruption caused by regional governments to the group’s operations appear to have severely hobbled them, severely reducing their reach outside Indonesia.[86]

United States Government Designations

  • Foreign terrorist organization (FTO), October 23, 2002.[87]
  • Specially Listed Nationals: Nurjaman Riduan Ismuddin (aka Hambali) and Mohamad Iqbal Abdurraham (aka Abu Jibril), January 24, 2003.[88]

Other Governments’ Designations

  • Australia (October 2002): terrorist organization. [89]
  • Canada (April 2003): terrorist entity. [90]
  • New Zealand (October 2002): designated organization. [91]
  • United Nations (October 2002): terrorist organization linked to Al-Qa’ida.[92]
  • United Kingdom (November 2002): proscribed terrorist organization. [93]
  • Malaysia, Singapore and Philippines have outlawed the group.[94]
 

[1] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.

[2] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.

[3] CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948.

[4] CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948.

[5]CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948.

[6] BBC. 2012. “Profile: Jemaah Islamiah.” BBC News, February 2. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-16850706.

[7] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[8] CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948.

[9] CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948.

[10] CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948; National Counterterrorism Center. 2015. “Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG).” Counterterrorism 2014 Calendar. Accessed April 16. http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/asg.html.

[11] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[12] Gordon, David, and Samuel Lindo. 2011. Jemaah Islamiyah. Homeland Security and Counterterrorism Program: Transnational Threats Project. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://csis.org/files/publication/111101_Gordon_JemaahIslamiyah_WEB.pdf.

[13] National Counterterrorism Center. 2015. “Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG).” Counterterrorism 2014 Calendar. Accessed April 16. http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/asg.html.

[14] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.

[15] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[16] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx; Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[17] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx; Golburt, Yanina. 2004. “An In-depth Look at the Jemaah Islamiyah Network.” Al Nakhlah, Fletcher School Online Journal for issues related to Southwest Asia and Islamic Civilization, 9.

[18] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.

[19] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.

[20] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.

[21] ICG. 2008. Indonesia: Jemaah Islamiyah’s Publishing Industry. 147. Asia Report. Jakarta, IDN: International Crisis Group. http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-east-asia/indonesia/147-indonesia-jemaah-islamiyahs-publishing-industry.aspx.

[22] Arianti, V. 2013. “Indonesian Terrorism Financing: Resorting To Robberies - Analysis.” Online Journal. Eurasia Review. July 30. http://www.eurasiareview.com/30072013-indonesian-terrorism-financing-resorting-to-robberies-analysis/; Golburt, Yanina. 2004. “An In-depth Look at the Jemaah Islamiyah Network.” Al Nakhlah, Fletcher School Online Journal for issues related to Southwest Asia and Islamic Civilization, 9.

[23] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[24] BBC. 2004. “Muslim Group ‘behind Thai Raids.’” BBC News, January 8, sec. Asia-Pacific. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3379079.stm; CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948.

[25] Gordon, David, and Samuel Lindo. 2011. Jemaah Islamiyah. Homeland Security and Counterterrorism Program: Transnational Threats Project. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://csis.org/files/publication/111101_Gordon_JemaahIslamiyah_WEB.pdf.

[26] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[27] BBC. 2012. “Profile: Jemaah Islamiah.” BBC News, February 2. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-16850706.

[28] US Department of State. 2013. “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” In Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, 244–91. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf.

[29] CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948.

[30] CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948.

[31] CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948.

[32] UN Security Council. 2011. “QE.J.92.02. Jemaah Islamiyah.” March 28. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE09202E.shtml.

[33] UN Security Council. 2011. “QE.J.92.02. Jemaah Islamiyah.” March 28. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE09202E.shtml; Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.  

[34] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.

[35] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.

[36] IISS. 2008. “Non-State Groups.” In The Military Balance 2008, 108:461–82. International Institute for Strategic Studies. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/04597220801912960.

[37] US Department of State. 2013. “Chapter 6. Foreign Terrorist Organizations.” In Country Reports on Terrorism 2012, 244–91. Washington, DC: US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210204.pdf.

[38] UN Security Council. 2011. “QE.J.92.02. Jemaah Islamiyah.” March 28. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE09202E.shtml.

[39] CFR. 2009. “Jemaah Islamiyah (a.k.a. Jemaah Islamiah).” Council on Foreign Relations. June 19. http://www.cfr.org/indonesia/jemaah-islamiyah-k-jemaah-islamiah/p8948.

[40] UN Security Council. 2011. “QE.J.92.02. Jemaah Islamiyah.” March 28. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE09202E.shtml.

[41] UN Security Council. 2011. “QE.J.92.02. Jemaah Islamiyah.” March 28. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE09202E.shtml.

[42] UN Security Council. 2011. “QE.J.92.02. Jemaah Islamiyah.” March 28. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE09202E.shtml.

[43] UN Security Council. 2011. “QE.J.92.02. Jemaah Islamiyah.” March 28. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE09202E.shtml.

[44] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[45] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[46] Conde, Carlos H. 2004. “Jemaah Islamiyah’s Tie to Rebels Grows?: Manila Peace Talks Face a Rising Threat.” The New York Times, July 14, sec. News. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/14/news/14iht-rebels.html.

[47] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[48] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[49] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.  

[50] National Counterterrorism Center. 2015. “Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG).” Counterterrorism 2014 Calendar. Accessed April 16. http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/asg.html.

[51] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[52] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[53] UN Security Council. 2009. “QE.R.128.08. Rajah Solaiman Movement.” May 7. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE12808E.shtml.

[54] UN Security Council. 2009. “QE.R.128.08. Rajah Solaiman Movement.” May 7. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE12808E.shtml.

[55] UN Security Council. 2009. “QE.R.128.08. Rajah Solaiman Movement.” May 7. http://www.un.org/sc/committees/1267/NSQE12808E.shtml.

[56] Cronin, Audrey Kurth, Huda Auden, Adam Frost, and Benjamin Jones. 2004. Foreign Terrorist Organizations. CRS Report for Congress RL32223. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/irp/crs/RL32223.pdf.

[57] Gordon, David, and Samuel Lindo. 2011. Jemaah Islamiyah. Homeland Security and Counterterrorism Program: Transnational Threats Project. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. http://csis.org/files/publication/111101_Gordon_JemaahIslamiyah_WEB.pdf.

[58] BBC. 2004. “Muslim Group ‘behind Thai Raids.’” BBC News, January 8, sec. Asia-Pacific. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3379079.stm.

[59] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx.  

[60] Attorney-General, Australia. 2013. “Jemaah Islamiyah (JI).” Australian National Security. September 18. http://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/JemaahIslamiyahJI.aspx; Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf; Golburt, Yanina. 2004. “An In-depth Look at the Jemaah Islamiyah Network.” Al Nakhlah, Fletcher School Online Journal for issues related to Southwest Asia and Islamic Civilization, 9.

[61] National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). 2013. “Global Terrorism Database [Data File].” http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/.

[62] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

[63] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf; Golburt, Yanina. 2004. “An In-depth Look at the Jemaah Islamiyah Network.” Al Nakhlah, Fletcher School Online Journal for issues related to Southwest Asia and Islamic Civilization, 9.

[64] National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). 2013. “Global Terrorism Database [Data File].” http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/.

[65] Golburt, Yanina. 2004. “An In-depth Look at the Jemaah Islamiyah Network.” Al Nakhlah, Fletcher School Online Journal for issues related to Southwest Asia and Islamic Civilization, 9.

[66] Vaughn, Bruce, Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ben Dolven, Mark E Manyin, Michael F Martin, and Larry A Niksch. 2009. Terrorism in Southeast Asia. CRS Report for Congress RL34194. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL34194.pdf.

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