The outbreak of Arab Spring movements in 2011 and the resultant overthrow of entrenched autocratic regimes in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen inspired euphoric optimism among Middle East and North Africa (MENA) pundits. Images of heroic Arab youths leading protests in public squares in defiance of repressive security forces augured well for the belated spread of democracy to this part of the world. Sadly, however, in two years' time, this optimism evaporated and a demoralizing pessimism took hold as Arab Spring movements fragmented in Egypt, Libya, and Yemen; succumbed to repression in Bahrain; endured violence from radical Salafism in Tunisia; and became trapped between barrel bombs and vicious beheadings in Syria. Political Islam in the Age of Democratization reflects the authors' confidence in the opportunity to integrate political Islam in democratic orders.
Hafez, Mohammed M. 2016. "Political Islam in the Age of Democratization." Rev. of Political Islam in the Age of Democratization. International Journal of Middle East Studies 48 (August): 607-609. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=10397082&fileId=S0020743816000660