Since April 2014, France has been developing a systemic model of counter radicalization covering the areas of detection, prevention and deradicalization. This voluntary approach is innovative, since the French authorities did not focus on counter radicalization initiatives before the deterioration of the Syrian civil war and the emergence of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/DAESH) as a key actor of the global insurgent scene. The January and November 2015 attacks highlighted the urgent need to tackle radical beliefs and convictions related to so-called Salafi-Jihadism3 before they turn into violent extremist activities. France’s centralized tradition led to the implementation of a top-down management system orchestrated by the Interior Ministry. Priority was given to the identification of individuals going through a process of radicalization, the ‘profiles’ of whom include varied segments of the French population. The French counter radicalization strategy, however, remains hampered by the difficulty in finding common ground regarding the role of religion in the field of deradicalization.
Quivooij, Romain. 2016. "The French Counter Radicalization Strategy." Defence Against Terrorism Review 8 (December): 67-88. http://www.tmmm.tsk.tr/publication/datr/volume8-2016/volume8-2016.pdf