National governments, including that of the United States, do not yet have well-formed cyberattack policies
and strategies. A proposed framework consisting of four foundational elements—contextual views, the
cyberattack spectrum, balance of focus, and appropriate circumstances—provides a basis for considering,
discussing, developing, and assessing strategic cyberattack guidance. How an actor approaches each of
these four elements fundamentally shapes the myriad details of subsequent policy and strategy. In view of
this framework, the United States should pursue development of comprehensive cyberattack theory.
Additionally, it should adopt a broader, but more nuanced view of cyberattacks combined with a focus
weighted toward strategic attack. Consequently, such perspective will inform a normative approach for
determining the appropriate circumstances in which to conduct cyberattack, which will guide both U.S.
action and modernization of international norms.
Chenoworth, Erica . 2014. Four Core Questions of U.S. Cyberattack Guidance. Strategy Research Project (Jan). http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a590664.pdf (April 2, 2014).